4 Principals of Effective Time Management
In a 1954 speech to the Second Assembly of the World Council of Churches, former U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was quoting Dr J. Roscoe Miller, president of Northwestern University, said: “I have two kinds of problems: the urgent and the important.”
The urgent are not important, and the important are never urgent. “This” Eisenhower Principle is said to be how he organized his workload and priorities. This is often represented in the following quadrant type diagram:
Important activities have an outcome that leads to us achieving our goals, whether these are professional or personal.
Urgent activities demand immediate attention, and are usually associated with achieving someone else’s goals. They are often the ones we concentrate on and they demand attention because the consequences of not dealing with them are immediate.
- Important and Urgent
There are two distinct types of urgent and important activities: ones that you could not have foreseen, and others that you’ve left until the last minute.
You can eliminate last-minute activities by planning ahead and avoiding procrastination.
However, you can’t always predict or avoid some issues and crises. Here, the best approach is to leave some time in your schedule to handle unexpected issues and unplanned important activities. (If a major crisis arises, then you’ll need to reschedule other tasks.)
If you have a lot of urgent and important activities, identify which of these you could have foreseen, and think about how you could schedule similar activities ahead of time, so that they don’t become urgent.
- Important but not Urgent
These are the activities that help you achieve your personal and professional goals, and complete important work.
Make sure that you have plenty of time to do these things properly, so that they do not become urgent. Also, remember to leave enough time in your schedule to deal with unforeseen problems. This will maximize your chances of keeping on track, and help you avoid the stress of work becoming more urgent than necessary.
- Not Important but Urgent
Urgent but not important tasks are things that prevent you from achieving your goals. Ask yourself whether you can reschedule or delegate them.
A common source of such activities is other people. Sometimes it’s appropriate to say “no” to people politely or to encourage them to solve the problem themselves.
Alternatively, try to have time slots showing when you are available so that people know they can speak with you then. A good way to do this is to arrange regular meetings with those who interrupt you often so that you can deal with all their issues at once. You’ll then be able to concentrate on your important activities for longer.
- Not Important and not Urgent
These activities are just a distraction – avoid them if possible. You can simply ignore or cancel many of them. However, some may be activities that other people want you to do, even though they don’t contribute to your own desired outcomes. Again, say “no” politely, if you can, and explain why you cannot do it.
If people see that you are clear about your objectives and boundaries, they will often avoid asking you to do “not important” activities in the future.
Where do you spend your day, in what quadrant are you working?